Fog-based IoT systems require interacting with the cloud systems, with each other, and with a large number of smart devices as well. Therefore, the successful adoption of fog computing with the current IoT systems will
Journal Pre-proof depends on new standards. Although fog computing can take advantage of the existing standards, new standards may also be needed especially in the following areas :
Unification of fog/cloud-based IoT systems: In order to enable unified fog/cloud-based applications and service platforms, new interfaces and protocols are required for the fog and the cloud to communicate with each
other. These interfaces and protocols can help to move computing functions between the fog and the cloud and to manage the life-cycle of the fog-based applications.
Support of distributed and hierarchical fog-based IoT systems: New interfaces and protocols will be required for different hierarchical levels in a fog-based system to communicate with each other, and also for various fog platforms at the same hierarchical level to interact, collaborate and serve as a backup for each other.
Data processing and management: One of the most important enablers of fog computing is local data management. Since data comes from a broad range of sources (e.g. sensors, actuators, and smartphones), new standards may be needed to store, access, and secure the data in the fog and the cloud.
Access to fog-based services: A broad range of new services will be enabled by the proximity of the fog layer to end devices in a fog-based system. New standards will be needed for the smart devices to communicate with the fog system to discover, request, and receive fog services.
Security: A distributed fog-based IoT system may introduce security challenges that are not present in centralized systems. In order to address these new challenges, new standards are required. For instance, fog
computing will require to have a different set of local hardware platforms. Therefore, new interfaces and protocols may be needed for fog software to properly communicate with different hardware platforms as well as
to automatically detect security compromises in order to respond them remotely and automatically